Aarhus University Seal / Aarhus Universitets segl



Sortér efter: Dato | Forfatter | Titel


Sortér efter: Dato | Forfatter | Titel

Click on + to view publications

Older publications


Sortér efter: Dato | Forfatter | Titel


Sortér efter: Dato | Forfatter | Titel


Sortér efter: Dato | Forfatter | Titel


Schendel, V., Junghanns, A., Bilde, T. & Uhl, G. 2018. Comparative female genital morphology in Stegodyphus spiders (Araneae: Eresidae). Journal of Comparative Zoology, 273, 240–249

Ghislandi, P.G., Pekár, S., Matzke, M., Schulte-Doinghaus, S., Bilde, T., Tuni, C. 2018. Resource availability, mating opportunity, and sexual selection intensity influence the expression of male alternative reproductive tactics. Journal of Evolutionary Biology in press

Vanthournout, B.; Busck, M.M.; Bechsgaard, J.; Hendrickx, F.; Schramm, A.; Bilde, T. 2018. Male spiders control offspring sex ratio through greater production of female-determining sperm. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 285: 20172887

Tuni, C., Weber, S., Bilde, T*., Uhl, G. 2017. Male spiders reduce pre- and post-mating sexual traits in response to sperm competition risk. Behavioural Ecology 28, 1030–1036. 

Thorsen, C.K., Schild, S-L.,A., Rangstrup-Christensen, L., Bilde, T., Pedersen, L.J. 2017. The effect of farrowing duration on maternal behavior of hyperprolific sows in organic outdoor production. Livestock Science

Junghanns, A., Holm, C., Schou, M.S., Sørensen, A.B., Uhl, G., Bilde, T. 2017. Cooperative breeding and allomaternal care in a social spider. Animal Behaviour, 132:101-107. 

Settepani V., Schou M.F., Greve M., Grinsted L., Bechsgaard J., Bilde T. 2017. Evolution of sociality in spiders leads to depleted genomic diversity at both population and species level. Molecular Ecology 26 (16): 4197-4210. DOI: 10.1111/mec.14196

Schou M.F., Loeschcke V., Bechsgaard J., Schlötterer C., Kristensen T. 2017. Unexpected high genetic diversity in small populations suggests maintenance by associative overdominance. Molecular Ecology. doi: 10.1111/mec.14262
Walter A., Bechsgaard J. Scavenius C., Sanggaard K. Dyrlund T.F., Enghild J.J., Bilde T. 2017. Characterisation of protein families in spider digestive fluids and their role in extra-oral digestion. BMC Genomics. doi.org/10.1186/s12864-017-3987-9
Schwager E., … Bechsgaard J., …, McGregor A. 2017. The house spider genome reveals an ancient whole-genome duplication during arachnid evolution. BMC Biology. doi.org/10.1186/s12915-017-0399-x
Bechsgaard J., Jørgensen T.H., Schierup M.H. 2017. Evidence for adaptive introgression of disease resistance genes among closely related Arabidopsis species. G3. doi:10.1534/g3.117.043984

Ghislandi, P. G., Beyer, M., Velado, P., Tuni, C. 2017. Silk wrapping of nuptial gifts aids cheating behaviour in male spiders. Behavioral Ecology (2017), 00(00), 1–6

​Albo, M. j., Bidegaray-Batista, L., Bechsgaard, J., Cruz da Silva, E. L., Bilde, T., Perez-Miles, F. 2017. Molecular phylogenetic analyses show that Trechaleidae and Lycosidae are sister groups. Arachnology 17 (4), 169-176

Albo M.J., N. Macías-Hernández, T Bilde & S. Toft. 2017. Mutual benefit from male exploitation of female foraging motivation may account for the early evolution of gifts in spiders. Animal Behaviour 129: 9-14


Bechsgaard, J. S., Vanthournout, B., Funch, P., Vestbo, S., Gibbs, R. A., Richards, S., Sanggaard, K. W., Enghild, J. J. & Bilde, T. 2016. Comparative genomic study of arachnid immune systems indicates loss of beta-1,3-glucanase-related proteins and the immune deficiency pathway  Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 29, 2, p. 277-291

Vanthournout, B., Greve, M., Bruun, A., Bechsgaard, J. ,Overgaard, J., Bilde, T. 2016. Benefits of group living include increased feeding efficiency and lower mass loss during desiccation in the social and inbreeding spider Stegodyphus dumicola. Frontiers in Physiology. 7:18.

Settepani V, Bechsgaard J, Bilde T. 2016. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that sociality is associated with reduced effectiveness of selection. Ecology and Evolution.  doi:10.1002/ece3.1886

Sanggaard, K.W., Dyrlund, T.F.,  Bechsgaard, J., Scavenius, C., Wang, T.,  Bilde, T., Enghild, J.J. 2016. The spider hemolymph clot proteome reveals high concentrations of hemocyanin and von willebrand factor-like proteinsBBA - Proteins and Proteomics.  2: 233–241​.

Toft S & MJ Albo. 2016. The shield effect: nuptial gifts protect males against pre-copulatory sexual cannibalism. Biology Letters 12: 20151082


Majer M., Svenning J-C., Bilde T. 2015. Habitat productivity predicts the global distribution of social spidersFrontiers in Ecology and Evolution. 3:101. 

Berger-Tal R., Lubin Y., Settepani V., Majer M., Bilde T., Tuni C. 2015. Evidence for loss of nepotism in the evolution of permanent sociality. Scientific Reports. 5: 13284.

Settepani, V., Grinsted, L. and Bilde, T. 2015. Temporary social spiders do not show personality-based task differentiation. Animal Behaviour. 105:95-102

Ghislandi P., Bilde T., Tuni C. 2015. Extreme male mating behaviours: anecdotes in a nuptial gift-giving spider. Arachnology 16: 273–275.

Toft S., Albo M.J. 2015. Optimal level of polyandry: the balance between the benefits and costs of mating in a nuptial gift-giving spider. Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 28: 457-467.

Grinsted, L., Bilde, T., Gilbert. J. 2015. No conclusive evidence of group selection in spiders. Nature, 524, E1-E3.

​Toft S & M.J. Albo. 2015. Optimal level of matings: the balance between the benefits and costs of mating in a nuptial gift-giving spider. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 28: 457-467

Older publications

2010 - 2014

Sanggaard KW, Bechsgaard JS, Fang X, Duan J, Dyrlund TF, Gupta V, Jiang X, Cheng L, Fan D, Feng Y, Han L, Huang Z, Liao L, Settepani V, Thøgersen IB, Vanthournout B, Wang T, Zhu Y, Funch P, Enghild JJ, Schauser L, Andersen SU, Villesen P, Schierup MH, Bilde T, Wang J. Spider genomes provide insight into composition and evolution of venom and silk. Nature Communications doi:10.1038/ncomms4765

Ghislandi P., Albo MJ., Tuni C., Bilde T. 2014. Evolution of deceit by worthless donations in a nuptial gift-giving spider. Current Zoology 60: 43-51.   

Grinsted L., Breuker CJ., Bilde T. 2014. Cooperative breeding favors maternal investment in size over number of eggs in spiders. Evolution. DOI: 10.1111/evo.12411

Hebets, E., Aceves-Aparicio, A., Aguilar-Arguello, S., Bingman, V. P., Escalante, I., Gerin, E. J., Nelsen, D. R., Rivera, J., Sanchez-Ruiz, J. A., Segura-Hernande, L.,  Settepani, V., Wiegmann, D. D., and Stafstrom, J. 2014. Multimodal sensory reliance in the nocturnal homing of the amblypygid Phrynus pseudoparvulus (Class Arachnida, Order Amblypygi). Behavioural Processes. 108: 123–130

Settepani, V., Bechsgaard, J. and Bilde, T. 2014. Low genetic diversity and strong but shallow population differentiation suggests homogenization by metapopulation dynamics in a social spider. The Journal of Evolutionary Biology 27:2850-285

Birkhofer, K., Bird, T., Bilde, T., Lubin, Y. 2014. Spatial patterns of social spider colonies in Namibia reflect habitat features and dispersal modes. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa, 69:3, 157-163

Vanthournout, B., Deswarte, K., Hammad, H., Bilde, T., Lambrecht, B., Hendrickx, F. 2014. Flow cytometric sexing of spider sperm reveals an equal sperm production ratio in a female biased species. Biology Letters, 10 (5), 20140159.


Albo MJ., Bilde T., Uhl G. 2013. Sperm storage mediated by cryptic female choice for nuptial gifts. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 280: 20131735

Pruitt J., Grinsted L., Settepani V. 2013. Linking levels of personality: personalities of average and extreme group members shape colony-level personality. Animal behaviour 86, 391-399.

Berger-Tal R., Tuni C., Lubin Y., Smith D., Bilde T. 2013. Fitness consequences of outcrossing in a social spider with an inbreeding mating system. Evolution 68:343-351 

Majer M., Agnarsson I., Svenning JC., Bilde T. 2013. Social species in the spider genus Anelosimus occur in wetter, more productive environments than non-social species. Naturwissenschaften 100:1031–1040.

Tuni C, Albo M.J., Bilde T. 2013. Benefits of polyandry in a nuptial-feeding species: multiple partners rather than multiple matings increase female reproductive success. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 26: 1307-1316.

Grinsted L, Pruitt JN, Settepani V, Bilde T. 2013. Individual personalities shape task differentiation in a social spider. Proc R Soc B 280: 20131407_

Settepani, V., Grinsted, L., Granfeldt, J., Jensen, J. L., Bilde, T. 2013 Task specialization in social spiders: a comparative study of Stegodyphus sarasinorum (Eresidae) and Anelosimus eximius (Theridiidae). The Journal of Evolutionary Biology 26, 51 – 62

Majer M., Svenning JC., Bilde T. 2013. Habitat productivity constrains the distribution of social spiders across continents -- case study of the genus Stegodyphus. Frontiers in Zoology. 10:9.

Grinsted L., Bilde T. 2013. Effects of within-colony competition on body size asymmetries and reproductive skew in a social spider. Journal of Evolutionary Biology. DOI: 10.1111/jeb.12072


Tuni C., Berger-Tal R. 2012. High mortality and female-biased operational sex ratio result in low encounter rates and moderate polyandry in a spider. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 107: 910-919.

Grinsted L., Agnarsson I., Bilde T. 2012. Subsocial behaviour and brood adoption in mixed-species colonies of two theridiid spiders. Naturwissenschaften doi: 10.1007/s00114-012-0983-4

Albo, MJ, Toft, S., Bilde, T. 2012. Female spiders ignore condition-dependent information from nuptial gift wrapping when choosing mates. Animal Behaviour 84:907-912 

Tuni, C., Berger-Tal, R. 2012. Male preference and female cues: males assess female sexual maturity and mating status in a web-building
spider. Behavioral Ecology
 doi: 10.1093/beheco/ars001 

Mattila, TM., Bechsgaard, JS., Hansen, TT., Schierup, MH., Bilde, T. 2012. Orthologous genes identified by transcriptome sequencing in the spider genus Stegodyphus.  BMC Genomics 13:70   

Tuni, C, Goodacre, S, Bechsgaard, J, Bilde, T. 2012. Moderate multiple parentage and low genetic variation reduces the potential for genetic incompatibility avoidance despite high risk of inbreeding. PLoS ONE 7(1): e29636. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029636


Albo, MJ., Winther, G., Tuni, C., Toft, S., Bilde T. 2011. Worthless donations: male deception and female counter play in a nuptial gift-giving spider. BMC Evolutionary Biology.

Grinsted, L., Bilde, T., D’Ettorre, P. 2011. Cuticular hydrocarbons as potential kin recognition cues in a subsocial spider. Behavioral Ecology doi:10.1093/beheco/arr105

Kristensen, TN., Loeschcke, V., Bilde, T., Hoffmann, AA., Sgró, C., Noreikienė, K., Ondrésik, M., Bechsgaard, JS. 2011. No inbreeding depression for low temperature developmental acclimation across multiple Drosophila species. Evolution 65-11: 3195–3201.

Ruch, J., Heinrich, L., Bilde, T., Schneider, JM. 2011. Site Selection and Foraging in the Eresid Spider Stegodyphus tentoriicola. Journal of Insect Behavior DOI 10.1007/s10905-011-9273-9, pp. 1-11.

Albo, M.J., Toft, S., Bilde, T. 2011. Condition dependence of male nuptial gift construction in the spider Pisaura mirabilis (Pisauridae). Journal of Ethology 29:  473-479. DOI 10.1007/s10164-011-0281-1.

Abbot, P., (…), Bilde, T., (...), Zink, A. 2011. Inclusive fitness theory and eusociality. Nature 471 (7339), pp. e1-e4. Reply to Nowak et al 2010, Nature.

Pekár, S., Martišová, M., Bilde, T. 2011. Intersexual trophic niche partitioning in an ant-eating spider (Araneae: Zodariidae). PLoS ONE 6(1): e14603.


Tuni, C., Bilde T. 2010. No preference for novel mating partners in the polyandrous nuptial feeding spider Pisaura mirabilis (Araneae: Pisauridae). Animal Behaviour, 80: 435- 442.

Martišová, M., Bilde, T., Pekár, S. 2010. Coercive copulation in two sexually cannibalistic camel-spider species (Arachnida: Solifugae). Journal of Zoology 282: 91-99.


2005 - 2009

Ruch, J., Heinrich, L., Bilde, T., Schneider, JM. 2009. Relatedness facilitates cooperation in the subsocial spider, Stegodyphus tentoriicola. BMC Evolutionary Biology 9:257 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-257.

Martišová, M., Bilde, T., Pekár, S. 2009. Sex-specific kleptoparasitic foraging in ant-eating spiders. Animal Behaviour 78: 1115-1118.

Ruch, J., Heinrich, L.,  Bilde, T., Schneider, JM. 2009. The evolution of social inbreeding mating systems in spiders: Limited male mating dispersal and lack of pre-copulatory inbreeding avoidance in a subsocial predecessor. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 98: 851-859.

Bilde, T., Foged, A., Schilling, N., Arnqvist, G. 2009. Postmating sexual selection favors males that sire offspring with low fitness. Science 324: 1705. DOI: 10.1126/science.1171675 (Recommended on faculty of 1000, F1000 Factor 3.0).

Smith, D., van Rijn, S., Henschel, J., Bilde, T., Lubin, Y. 2009. Amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprints support limited gene flow among social spider populations. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 97: 235–246.

Lubin, Y., Birkhofer, K., Berger-Tal, R., Bilde, T. 2009. Limited male dispersal in a social spider with extreme inbreeding. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 97, 227–234.

Bilde, T., Maklakov, AA., Meisner, K., la Guardia, L., Friberg, U. 2009. Sex differences in the genetic architecture of lifespan in a seed beetle: extreme inbreeding extends male lifespan. BMC Evolutionary Biology 9:33 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/9/33

Bilde, T., Tuni, C., Goodacre, SL., Santini, A., Garoia, F. 2009. Characterisation of microsatellite loci in the subsocial spider Stegodyphus lineatus, (Araneae: Eresidae). Molecular Ecology Resources 9: 128–130. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-0998.2008.02296.x


Bilde, T., Friberg, U., Maklakov, A., Fry, JD., Arnqvist, G. 2008. The genetic architecture of fitness in a seed beetle: assessing the potential for indirect genetic benefits of female choice. BMC Evolutionary Biology 8: 295. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/8/295

Schneider, JM., Bilde, T. 2008. Benefits of cooperation with genetic kin in a subsocial spider. PNAS 105:10843-10846 (equal contribution from JMS and TB). www.pnas.org_cgi_doi_10.1073_pnas.0804126105

Hansen, L.S., Gonzales, SF., Toft, S., Bilde, T. 2008. Thanatosis as an adaptive male mating strategy in the nuptial gift-giving spider Pisaura mirabilis. Behavioral Ecology 19: 546-551. doi:10.1093/beheco/arm165

Andersen, T., Bollerup, K., Toft, S., Bilde, T. 2008. Why do males of the spider Pisaura mirabilis wrap their nuptial gifts in silk: female preference or male control? Ethology 114: 775-781. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0310.2008.01529.x


Bilde, T., Maklakov, AA., Schilling, N. 2007. Inbreeding avoidance in spiders: evidence for rescue effect in fecundity of females with outbreeding opportunity. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 20: 1237-1242. doi:10.1111/j.1420-9101.2006.01280.x

Bilde, T., Coates, K., Birkhofer, K., Bird, T., Maklakov, AA., Lubin, Y., Avilés, L. 2007. Survival benefits select for group living despite reproductive costs in a social spider. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 20: 2412-2426. doi: 10.1111/j.1420-9101.2007.01407.x

Lubin, Y., Bilde, T. 2007. The evolution of sociality in spiders. Advances in the Study of Behavior 37: 83-145. DOI: 10.1016/S0065-3454(07)37003-4

Johannesen, J., Lubin, Y., Smith, DR., Bilde, T., Schneider, JM. 2007. The age and evolution of sociality in Stegodyphus spiders: A molecular phylogenetic perspective. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 274: 231-237. doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3699

Bilde, T., C. Tuni, R. Elsayed, S. Pekar, S. Toft. 2007. Nuptial gifts of male spiders: sensory exploitation of the female´s maternal care instinct or foraging motivation? Animal Behaviour 73: 267-273. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2006.05.014


Bilde, T., Tuni, C., Elsayed, R., Pekar, S., Toft, S. 2006. Death feigning in the face of sexual cannibalism. Biology Letters 2: 23-25.

Maklakov, AA., Bilde, T., Lubin, Y. 2006. Inter-sexual combat and resource allocation into body parts in the spider, Stegodyphus lineatus. Ecological Entomology 31: 564-567.


Bilde, T., Lubin. Y., Smith, D., Schneider, J.M., Maklakov, AA. 2005. The transition to social inbred mating systems in spiders – role of inbreeding tolerance in a subsocial predecessor. Evolution 59: 160-174.

Maklakov, AA., Bilde, T. Lubin, Y. 2005. Sexual conflict in the wild: Elevated mating rate reduces female lifetime reproductive success. American Naturalist 165: S38-S45.